Anti-Ectoparasite Activity of Medicinal Herbal Plant in Terms of Reducing Ectoparasites Effect on Sheep and Goat Skins

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Fitsum Etefa Ahmed
Aschalew Shitu
Zerihun Teshome
Endalamaw Yihune
Misganaw Bitew
Haile Mekonnen Fenta


Ethiopia has one of the world’s largest livestock resources. However, the effects of disease, inadequate nutrition and management constrain the potential of this resource. Ectoparasites are one of the primary contributing factors in the tanneries for sheep and goat skin rejection. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of medicinal herbal plant extracts on ectoparasites (ticks) on small ruminants in Ethiopia. According to scientific and ethnomedical data gathered from respondents (farmers), the plant species P. dodecandra, E. globulus, C. macrostachyus, J. schimperiana, and C. aurea were used (by farmers) for the study. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and saponins, tannins. Ticks from small ruminants (i.e goat and sheep) were collected and an in vitro adult tick immersion test was carried out using concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml of all medicinal plant extracts. The temporal tick mortality was observed within 24-hours. In order to compare the results, distilled water and 12.5% amitraz was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After 24 hours of exposure, P. dodecandra, J. schimperiana, and C. macrostachyus extracts had a moderate (60%) effect on tick mortality; however, C. aurea extract at 100 mg/ml and E. globulus extract at 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml had the highest mortality rate (80%). The study found that following in vitro treatment for the studied plants, the mean tick mortality increased considerably with increasing concentration and exposure duration. The existence of phytochemicals (active ingredients) in several plants, such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, saponin, etc., may be the cause of their anti-ectoparasite effects. The study’s findings suggested that these plants might be crucial in reducing the need for chemical based medicines as well as managing the population of resistant ticks in an environmentally friendly manner.

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