A New Perceived Restorativeness Scale for Children’s Everyday Environment (PRS-ChEE)

Evaluating the Restorative Potential of Orphanages’ Outdoor Spaces from the Viewpoint of Children


  • Maryam Mani
  • Helen Woolley
  • Jean Russell


children, restorative environment, Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), children's environment, orphanages, outdoor space


According to attention restoration theory (ART), the mental fatigue that results from the enhanced demands on directed attention imposed by an urban lifestyle can be restored by exposure to natural settings known as restorative environments. This opportunity becomes more important for children who spend a significant part of their life in institutions such as orphanages. Although the restorative qualities of a setting have a great impact on children’s happiness and development, it has been uncommon to ask children to evaluate the restorative potential of their surroundings. We developed a valid and reliable “Perceived Restorativeness Scale for Children’s Everyday Environment (PRS-ChEE)” based on ART and administered it to 118 children (7 to 17 years) at three orphanages in Iran. The results demonstrated that children scored different orphanages’ outdoor spaces differently, due to varying degrees of size, naturalness, and play equipment, indicating the reliability of the scale.