Academic Research Into Typographic Design at the Beginning of a New Era
In Europe, academic studies in design and the arts were regulated by the Bologna declarations in 1999. As a side effect of these declarations, architecture and art programs were linked to a university partner and a new field of research was born—namely, “research in the Arts.” This was a logical consequence of the new European educational model, and means that a professional bachelor degree directly addresses the labor market, whereas an academic master has the ambition to offer students a broader horizon not only by means of practice, but also of theory. An academic master enables the students to further explore and innovate within their own field alongside reflective thinking, critical awareness, and creation. In addition, students with a master’s degree were now able to start a third cycle—namely, to aspire toward earning a PhD. In turn, this—given the social role of the Arts—necessitated the development of an active and sustainable research environment.